Aug 20,2022
What is a ternary lithium battery?

In nature,lithium is the lightest metal with the smallest atomic mass,its atomic weight is 6.94g/mol,ρ=0.53g/cm3.Lithium has active chemical properties and is easy to lose electrons and be oxidized to Li+.Therefore,the standard electrode potential is the most negative,which is-3.045V,and the electrochemical equivalent is the least,which is 0.26g/Ah.These characteristics of lithium determine that it is a material with very high specific energy.Ternary lithium battery refers to lithium secondary battery which uses three transition metal oxides of nickel,cobalt and manganese as cathode materials.It fully integrated the good cycling performance of lithium cobalt acid,the high specific capacity of lithium nickel acid,the high safety and low cost of lithium manganese acid and other characteristics,using molecular level mixing,doping,coating and surface modification methods to synthesize nickel,cobalt,manganese and other elements synergistic composite lithium oxide.It is a kind of lithium ion rechargeable battery which is widely studied and applied at present.

Ternary lithium battery life

The so-called lithium battery life refers to the battery in the use of a period of time,capacity decay to the nominal capacity(room temperature 25℃,standard atmospheric pressure,and 0.2C discharge of the battery capacity)70%,can be considered to terminate the life.In the industry,the cycle life of lithium battery is generally calculated by the cycle times of full discharge.In the process of use,irreversible electrochemical reactions will occur inside the lithium battery,which will lead to the decline of capacity,such as the decomposition of electrolyte,the deactivation of active materials,and the collapse of positive and negative electrode structures,which will lead to the reduction of the number of lithium ions embedded and deembedded.

The theoretical life of ternary lithium battery is about 800 cycles,which is moderate among commercial rechargeable lithium batteries.Lithium iron phosphate is about 2,000 cycles,while lithium titanate is said to be capable of up to 10,000 cycles.At present,the mainstream battery manufacturers promise more than 500 times(charge and discharge under standard conditions)in their production of ternary cell specifications,but after the cell is made into a battery pack,due to the consistency problem,mainly the voltage and internal resistance can not be exactly the same,its cycle life is about 400 times.Manufacturers recommend that SOC use window of 10%~90%,do not recommend deep charge and discharge,otherwise it will cause irreversible damage to the positive and negative structure of the battery,if the shallow charge and shallow discharge to calculate,the cycle life is at least 1000 times.In addition,the battery life of lithium batteries can be significantly reduced to less than 200 times if they are constantly discharged at high power rates and high temperatures.

Advantages and disadvantages of ternary lithium batteries

Ternary lithium battery is more balanced in terms of capacity and safety,which is a battery with excellent comprehensive performance.The main roles and advantages and disadvantages of the three metal elements are as follows:

Co3+:reduces the cation mixture occupation,stabilizes the layered structure of the material,reduces the impedance value,improves the conductivity,improves the cycling and multiplication performance.

Ni2+:can improve the capacity of the material(improve the bulk energy density of the material).Due to the similar radius of Li and Ni,excessive Ni will also lead to Li-nickel mixing due to dislocation phenomenon with Li.The larger the nickel ion concentration in the lithium layer,the more difficult it is to disembed lithium in the layered structure,resulting in poor electrochemical performance.

Mn4+:Not only can reduce the cost of materials,but also can improve the safety and stability of materials.However,if Mn content is too high,spinel phase will easily appear and the layered structure will be destroyed,and the capacity will be reduced and the circulation will be attenuated.

High energy density is the biggest advantage of ternary lithium batteries,the platform is an important indicator of the battery energy density and voltage,determines the basic performance and cost of batteries,the higher the voltage platform,the greater the specific capacity,so the same volume,weight,and even the same ampere hour battery,high voltage platform ternary material lithium battery life is longer.The discharge voltage platform of single ternary lithium battery is as high as 3.7V,lithium iron phosphate is 3.2V,and lithium titanate is only 2.3V.Therefore,from the perspective of energy density,ternary lithium battery has absolute advantages over lithium iron phosphate,lithium manganate or lithium titanate.

Poor safety and short cycle life are the main shortcomings of ternary lithium batteries,especially their safety performance,which has been a major factor limiting their large-scale assembly and large-scale integration applications.A large number of field tests show that it is difficult for ternary batteries with large capacity to pass safety tests such as needling and overcharging,which is the reason why manganese element is usually introduced in large capacity batteries,or even mixed with lithium manganese acid.The cycle life of 500 times is at the lower end of the medium range in lithium batteries,so the main application field of ternary lithium batteries is 3C digital and other consumer electronic products.
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