Aug 23,2022

A typical solar photovoltaic power generation system consists of solar cell arrays, cables, inverters, energy storage batteries, loads or users, etc. Among them, the solar cell array and the energy storage device are the power supply system, the controller and the power electronic converter are the control and protection system, and the load is the system terminal.

1. Solar cell array

The smallest unit for photoelectric conversion is the solar cell. Its size is 4~100cm2, its working voltage is 0.45~0.50V, and its working current is 20~25mA/cm2, so it cannot be used as a power supply alone. In a photovoltaic power generation system, solar cells need to be connected in series, parallel and packaged to form solar cell modules. Its power can be from a few watts to hundreds of watts and can be used alone as a power source. The solar cell array is to connect the solar cell components in series and parallel and then install them on the bracket. It can output hundreds of watts, several kilowatts or even more power, and is the electrical energy generator of the photovoltaic power generation system.

2. Solar battery

Independent photovoltaic power generation systems rely on batteries to store excess electrical energy, so batteries play an important role in independent photovoltaic power generation systems. As the selling price of solar cell modules decreases, the proportion of battery costs in the total system investment will gradually increase. In addition, in the operation of the independent photovoltaic power generation system, the situation that the normal operation of the system is affected by the battery failure will occupy a large proportion. Therefore, during system design, it is very important for the normal operation of the independent solar photovoltaic power generation system to select the appropriate battery type, determine the appropriate battery capacity, accurately implement the installation, operation, and careful maintenance.

3. Photovoltaic inverter

The inverter in the photovoltaic power generation system is a converter circuit, and its function is to convert the direct current generated by the solar cell array into alternating current with different required frequencies and voltage values. Inverter can be divided into passive and active. Passive inverter means that the DC power is directly supplied to the load through the inverter, and active inverter means that the DC power is supplied to the AC power supply through the inverter.

The necessity of converting DC to AC is also reflected in the fact that when the power supply system needs to increase or decrease the voltage, the AC system only needs to add a transformer, while the technology and devices in the DC system are much more complicated. Therefore, except for special users, inverters are required in photovoltaic power generation systems.

In addition, the inverter also has the function of automatic voltage regulation or manual voltage regulation, which can improve the power supply quality of the photovoltaic power generation system. Obviously, the inverter is an indispensable and important supporting equipment in the photovoltaic power generation system.

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